skill toefl

  1. Adjective dan adverb

Adjective (kata sifat) memberikan informasi tentang kata benda. Contoh:

  • She’s an excellent dancer.
  • I’ve got a new apartment.

Adverb (kata keterangan) merubah kata kerja, yakni kata keterangan menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan. Contoh:

– She learns quickly.
– You can speak English well.

Adjective (kata sifat)

Adjective bisa ditempatkan sebelum kata benda. Contoh:

  • This is a beautiful bird.
  • “This is a bird beautiful.” tidak benar.

Kata sifat memberikan informasi seperti ukuran (kecil, besar), bentuk (bulat, persegi), warna (kuning, hijau), kebangsaan (Cina, Polandia), dan opini (baik, buruk).

Adjective tidak mengalami perubahan yang tergantung pada jumlah (tunggal atau jamak). Contoh:

  • She has a cute puppy.
  • She has three cute puppies.

Perhatikan bahwa adjective (cute) tidak mengalami perubahan baik dalam bentuk tunggal (puppy) maupun jamak (puppies).

Adjective juga bisa ditempatkan setelah kata kerja tertentu seperti be, feel, look, dan taste. Contoh:

  • I’m really happy today.
  • She’s got a new job so she feels great.
  • You look wonderful!
  • This chicken tastes delicious.

Adverb (kata keterangan)

Adverb sering dibentuk dengan menambahkan –ly di belakang adjective. Contoh:

  • quick (adjective) – He’s quick at learning new things.
  • quickly (adverb) – He learns quickly.
  • bad (adjective) – He didn’t get a bad test score.
  • badly (adverb) – He didn’t do badly in his test.

Untuk adverb yang terbentuk dari adjective yang berakhiran dengan huruf “-y” ganti “-y” dengan “-i” dan tambahkan “-ly“. Contoh:

  • easy (adjective) – He thinks math is easy.
  • easily (adverb) – He can do math easily.
  • happy (adjective) – He’s a happy man.
  • happily (adverb) – He works happily every day.

Untuk adverb yang terbentuk dari adjective yang berakhiran dengan huruf “-le” ganti “-le” dengan “-ly“. Contoh:

  • simple (adjective) – The teacher makes difficult things simple.
  • simply (adverb) – He teaches simply and clearly.

Beberapa adverb sama dengan adjective. Contoh:

  • He runs fast (adverb) – He’s a fast runner. (adjective)
  • He studies hard. (adverb) – It’s a hard life. (adjective)

Adverb untuk “good” adalah “well“. Contoh:

  • She’s a good pianist.
  • She plays the piano well.

Adverb juga bisa mengubah adjective dan adverb-adverb lainnya. Contoh:

  • That’s a good book.
  • That’s a very good book.
  • She’s a talented girl.
  • She’s an incredibly talented girl.
  • You’re right!
  • You’re absolutely right!
  1. Modal Verb (can/cannot)

Can merupakan sebuah jenis kata kerja bantu yang disebut modal verb. Modal verbs menunjukkan karakter atau mood tertentu dari sebuah kata kerja.

Ability/Kemampuan

Can sering digunakan untuk menunjukkan kemampuan. Contoh: “We can speak English”, atau “He can sing well.”

Berikut bentuk Simple Present dari can yang menunjukkan kemampuan.

PernyataanI can play the piano.
She can drive a car.

NEgatif

I cannot play the piano.
She cannot drive a car.

PertanyaanCan you play the piano?
Can she drive a car?

Singkatan

Cannot dan can’t adalah kata yang sama: misal:
– I cannot cook well
– I can’t cook well
Can’t lebih umum digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris lisan.

Permission/Izin

Can juga digunakan untuk menunjukkan izin. Contoh: “You can go home after class”. Berikut bentuk Simple Present dari can yang menunjukkan izin.

PernyataanYou can meet her tommorrow. – (Kamu mendapatkan izin untuk menemuinya).

Negatif

She can’t come to our house. – (Dia tidak diizinkan untuk datang ke rumah kita).

PertanyaanCan we go to the movies? – (Ijinkan kami pergi ke bioskop).

Contoh penggunaan dalam percakapan

1) Can you play the piano?
Yes, a little. How about you?
No I can’t, but I can play the guitar.

2) Can you cook?
Not really. I can make toast and pasta, that’s all.
Everyone can make toast!
Well, can you cook?
Yes, I can. I can cook delicious fish and chicken.
Wow, that’s great.

3) So what can you do?
I can draw, and I can paint really well too. I can also speak English and Korean. How about you?
I can play chess and I can write computer programs. I can also speak English and Spanish.
Excellent!

Kosa kata baru:

can = bisa
play = main
piano = piano
can’t = tidak bisa
guitar = gitar
cook = memasak
delicious = lezat
fish = ikan
wow = wow
draw = menggambar
paint = cat
Korean =orang Kroea
chess = catur
write = menulis
computer = komputer
computer program = program komputer
Spanish = Bahasa Spanyol
excellent = bagus sekali

Modals verb other

All the auxiliary verbs except be, do and have are called modals. Unlike other auxiliary verbs modals only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone as the main verb in a sentence.

Be, do, and have also differ from the other auxiliaries in that they can also serve as ordinary verbs in a given sentence.

The modal verbs are:-

CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT / MUST / SHALL / SHOULD / OUGHT TO / WILL / WOULD

Modal Example Uses
Can They can control their own budgets.We can’t fix it.

Can I smoke here?

Can you help me?

Ability / PossibilityInability / Impossibility

Asking for permission

Request

Could Could I borrow your dictionary?Could you say it again more slowly?

We could try to fix it ourselves.

I think we could have another Gulf War.

He gave up his old job so he could work for us.

Asking for permission.Request

Suggestion

Future possibility

Ability in the past

May May I have another cup of coffee?China may become a major economic power. Asking for permissionFuture possibility
Might We’d better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.They might give us a 10% discount. Present possibilityFuture possibility
Must We must say good-bye now.They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary. Necessity / ObligationProhibition
Ought to We ought to employ a professional writer. Saying what’s right or correct
Shall(More common in the UK than the US) Shall I help you with your luggage?Shall we say 2.30 then?

Shall I do that or will you?

OfferSuggestion

Asking what to do

Should We should sort out this problem at once.I think we should check everything again.

Profits should increase next year.

Saying what’s right or correctRecommending action

Uncertain prediction

Will I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.I’ll do that for you if you like.

I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.

Profits will increase next year.

Instant decisionsOffer

Promise

Certain prediction

Would Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?Would you pass the salt please?

Would you mind waiting a moment?

“Would three o`clock suit you?” – “That’d be fine.”

Would you like to play golf this Friday?

“Would you prefer tea or coffee?” – “I’d like tea please.”

Asking for permissionRequest

Request

Making arrangements

Invitation

Preferences

!Note The modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by the base form.

The verb used to, which is explained here, can also be used like a modal verb.

  1. Prepositions & Conjunctions of Time – before/after/as/as soon as

Prepositions and Conjunctions of Time 3 – before / after / as / as soon as

Before

Before is used for something that occurs before a certain time. For example:
– We should finish this exercise before 4.00.
– I need to buy a present before James comes.
Before starting any business, it’s a good idea to write a business plan.

Note that when a preposition is followed by a verb, the verb ends in ing. So for example:
– Where did you live before coming to America? Correct
– Where did you live before to come to America? Incorrect

After

After is used for something that occurs after a certain time. For example:
– I’ll see you after work.
– Camilla won’t be home until after midnight.
– David got promoted after just two years with the company.

As – Time

As is used when two shorter actions happen together. For example:
– I dropped my keys as I left my apartment.

As is also used when two longer actions happen together. For example:
– His health improved as he exercised more.
As time went by his English got better.

As is also used when an action happens during a background situation.
– I woke up as the sun was rising.
– She arrived as you were leaving.

As – Reason

As is often used to show one thing is the cause of another, like the word “because”. For example:
– I’m going to bed early as I have to get up early tomorrow.
As we’re not busy, let’s meet this afternoon for lunch.

As soon as

As soon as is used when something happens immediately after something else. For example:
– I’ll give you a call as soon as I’m finished.
As soon as they go out let’s eat lunch.
– We’ll send payment as soon as you fax the signed contract.

Determiner – each / every

Each dan every digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu secara tersendiri dan dalam kelompok.

Nouns are often preceded by the words “the,a“, or “an“. These words are called “determiners”. They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner “the” is known as the “definite article”. It is used before both singular and plural nouns. The determiner “a” (or “an“, when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the “indefinite article”. It is used when the noun is singular. Determiners are used in front of nouns to indicate whether you are referring to something specific or something of a particular type.

Each

Each digunakan untuk menunjuk pada item-item tersendiri dalam sebuah kelompok. Penekanan diberikan pada aspek tersendiri (individual) dari masing-masing item. Contoh:

  • Give each student some candy. (Berikan ke masing-masing orang)
  • Make each day better than its yesterday, and each tomorrow better than today.

Each sering digunakan untuk anggota-anggota kelompok yang lebih kecil. Contoh:

  • Our team won and we each got a prize.

Penempatan each dalam kalimat bisa di depan, di ditengah, atau di akhir kalimat. Contoh:

  • Each of these shirts are only $20.
  • These shirts are only $20 each.
  • These shirts each cost $20. (Struktur ini sedikit lebih tidak lazim.)

Each one

Each bisa digunakan bersama dengan pronoun indefinit one. Contoh:

  • Twins can look the same, but each one has their own personality.

Akan tetapi penggunaan one sering tidak perlu:

  • Twins can look the same, but each has their own personality.

Each of…

Each of… digunakan untuk pemilihan item-item individual. Contoh:

  • Each of these books is interesting.
  • Each of the top five employees will receive a bonus.
  • We’ve won each of our last four games.

Every

Every digunakan untuk menunjuk pada sekelompok item individual. Penekanan diberikan pada kelompok. Contoh:

  • Learn something new every day.
  • Every student got a candy. (Setiap orang dalam kelompok mendapatkan permen.)

Every digunakan untuk seberapa sering sesuatu terjadi. Contoh:

  • He plays soccer every saturday.
  • They go abroad every year.

Every one / Every one of

Every bisa digunakan bersama dengan pronoun indefinit one. Contoh:

  • Did you eat the strawberries? Yes, I ate every one.
  • Did you finish these questions? Yes, I got every one right.

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa every one (pakai spasi) menunjuk kepada benda/sesuatu, tetapi everyone (tidak pakai spasi) merupakan kata yang sangat berbeda, yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan orang.

Every tidak bisa digunakan sendirian. Contoh:

  • Did you finish these questions? Yes, I got every right. – Ini tidak benar.
  • Did you finish these questions? Yes, I got every one right. – Benar.

Every one of bisa digunakan apabila kita ingin menentukan kelompok apa yang sedang kita bicarakan. Contoh:

  • You must read every one of these books by next week.
  • Did you finish these questions? Yes, I got every one of them right.

You use a “specific determiner” when people know exactly which thing(s) or person/people you are talking about.

The specific determiners are:

The definite article : the
Demonstratives : this, that, these, those
Possessives : my, your, his, her, its, our, their

For example:

  • The dog barked at the boy.
  • These apples are rotten.
  • Their bus was late.

You use “general determiners” to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are.

The general determiners are:

the indefinite articles : a, an
a few
a little
all
another
any
both
each
either
enough
every
few
fewer
less
little
many
more
most
much
neither
no
other
several
some

For example:

  • A man sat under an umbrella.
  • Have you got any English books that I could have?
  • There is enough food to feed everyone.
  1. Pronouns

A pronoun usually refers to something already mentioned in a sentence or piece of text. A pronoun is a word that substitutes a noun or noun phrase used to prevent repetition of the noun to which they refer. One of the most common pronouns is it.

Rule for Pronouns
A pronoun must agree with the noun it refer. Therefore, if the noun is singular, therefore the pronoun must be singular; if the noun is plural, use a plural pronoun; if the noun is feminine, use a feminine pronoun, and so on.

For example:

  • The train was late, it had been delayed.
  • The trains were late, they had been delayed.

Types of pronouns
English Pronouns are divided into sub-categories. These are Demonstrative, Personal, Reflexive, Possessive, Interrogative, Negative, Reciprocal, Relative and Quantifier

Type

About

Example

Personal Pronoun Takes the place of a specific or named person or thing. I, you, he, she, etc..
Reflexive Pronoun Adds information by pointing back to a noun or another pronoun. myself, yourself, etc..
Demonstrative Pronoun Points out a specific person, place, or thing. this, that, these, those
Relative pronoun Begins a subordinate clause and relates the clause to a word in the main clause. who, whose, which, that, etc..
Interrogative Pronoun Is used to ask a question. who, what, where, etc..
Possessive Pronoun Used to substitute a noun and to show possession or ownership. mine, yours, his, etc..
Negative Pronoun nothing, no, nobody, etc..
Reciprocal pronoun Express an interchangeable or mutual action or relationship. each other, one another
Quantifier some, any, something, much, etc.

Pronoun atau kata ganti adalah kata-kata yang digunakan untuk menggantikan orang atau benda. Ada 5 jenis kata ganti orang, yaitu yang berfungsi sebagai subject (Subject Pronouns), sebagai object (object pronoun), sebagai adjective (possessive adjectives), untuk menyatakan kepunyaan (possessive pronouns), dan untuk menyatakan refleksi diri (reflexive atau reciprocal pronouns). Kelima pronoun tersebut disajikan pada tabel berikut.

Subject
Pronouns
Object
Pronouns
Possessive Adjectives
Possessive Pronouns
Reciprocal Pronouns
I
You (singular)
You (plural)
We
They
He
She
It
me
you
you
us
them
him
her
it
my
your
your
our
their
his
her
its
mine
yours
yours
ours
theirs
his
hers
its
myself
yourself
yourselves
ourselves
themselves
himself
herself
itself

A. Penggunaan subject pronoun.

Subject pronoun adalah kata ganti yang berfungsi sebagai subject.

  • I, you, we, they, he, dan she digunakan untuk mengganti orang. Selain itu, “they ” juga digunakan untuk menggantikan plural nouns. He dan she juga dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan hewan, khususnya hewan peliharaan. Dan khusus untuk “she ‘ juga dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan kapal laut.
  • “It ” untuk menggantikan benda mati dan tumbuhan tunggal.
  • He, she dan it adalah singular subject (orang ketiga tunggal) yang selalu diikuti oleh singular verb.

Penggunaan subject pronoun ada 4, yaitu:

a. Pada umumnya subject pronoun diletakkan di awal kalimat (sebelum verb).

Contoh:

  1. I love you.
  2. He is my brother.
  3. She likes writing a poem. (Dia suka menulis puisi).
  4. Two cars were reported stolen last night. They haven’t been found yet. (Dua mobil dilaporkan dicuri tadi malam. Mereka (kedua mobil itu) belum ditemukan).
  5. You have to buy a good English dictionary. (Kamu harus membeli sebuah kamus bahasa Inggris yang baik).
  6. We planted a rose plant last month. It is growing well now. (Kami menanam sebuah tanaman mawar sebulan yang lalu. Dia (tanaman mawar itu) sedang tumbuh dengan baik sekarang).

b. (it/that/this/these/those/there) + (to be) + subject pronoun

Dalam pola-pola seperti ini, it, that, this, these, those dan there hanya berfungsi sebagai pseudo-subject (subject semu). Subject yang sebenarnya adalah nouns setelah to be. Olehnya itu, pronoun yang tepat digunakan setelah to be adalah subject pronoun.

Contoh:

  1. It was I who broke the mirror. (Adalah saya (sayalah) yang memecahkan cermin itu).
  2. There is he here now. You should come here quickly if you want to meet him. (Ada dia di sini sekarang. Kamu harus datang ke sini dengan cepat jika kamu ingin bertemu dia).
  3. This is I. I am just an ordinary person. (Inilah saya. Saya hanyalah seorang manusia biasa).

c. Setelah expression as… as dalam kalimat equal comparison.

Contoh:

  1. He is as smart as she. (Dia (cowok) sama pintarnya dengan dia (cewek).
  2. Maria has the same preference as they. (Maria punya kesukaan yang sama dengan mereka).

c. Setelah than dalam kalimat unequal comparison.

Contoh:

  1. I am smarter than he. (Saya lebih pintar dari dia).
  2. They study harder than she. (Mereka belajar lebih giat dari dia).

d. Setelah different from.

  1. We are different from they. (Kita beda dengan mereka).
  2. Although they are twins, she is different from he. (Walaupun mereka kembar, dia (cewek) beda dengan dia).

Note: In speaking (informal occasion), pronoun pada kalimat-kalimat di poin b – d lebih sering dinyatakan dengan object pronoun, menjadi:

  1. It was me who broke the mirror.
  2. He is as smart as her.
  3. I am smarter than him.
  4. We are different from them. dan seterusnya.

Walaupun lebih sering digunakan secara informal, penggunaan object pronoun ini (poin b-d) dianggap gramatically incorrect. Jadi, jika anda ikut ujian TOEFL atau test lainnya selalu pilih subject pronoun, bukan object pronoun.

Contoh kalimat tambahan penggunaan subject pronoun dapat dibaca di topik : Subject kalimat.

B. Penggunaan object pronoun

Object pronoun adalah kata ganti yang berfungsi sebagai object dan diletakkan setelah verb.

Contoh:

  1. Yeyes gave me a piece of cake (Yeyes memberi saya sepotong kue)
  2. Yeyes gave you a piece of cake, too. (Yeyes memberi kamu sepotong kue juga)
  3. Yeyes did not give him a piece of cake. (Yeyes tidak memberi dia sepotong kue).
  4. I like her. (Saya suka dia).
  5. Do you like your new bicycle? Yes, I like it very much. (Apakah kamu suka sepeda barumu? Ya, saya menyukainya dengan sangat)
  6. Koko helped us clean the house. (Koko membantu kami membersihkan rumah).
  7. Yeyes taught him to do his homework. (Yeyes mengajarinya mengerjakan PR).
  8. Didit saw us on the football field. (Didit melihat kita di lapangan sepakbola)
  9. She hates me because I am very, very naughty. (Dia membenciku karena saya sangat,sangat jahil).

C. Penggunaan possessive adjective

Pronoun ini berfungsi sebagai kata sifat, yaitu untuk menerangkan kepemilikan terhadap nouns. (The nouns belong to whom? = nouns itu milik siapa?)

Contoh:

  1. This is my house. (Ini adalah rumahku).
  2. That is his house.
  3. This is your dictionary. (Ini adalah kamusmu)
  4. We all like our teacher.
  5. Didit and Yeyes are saving some of their money to buy a birthday gift.
  6. That is your book.
  7. This is their clean class.
  8. That is our television.
  9. This is my new bag.
  10. That is her big house.

D. Penggunaan possessive pronoun

Kata ganti ini juga menyatakan kepemilikan sesuatu benda. Perbedaannya dengan possessive adjectives adalah terletak pada kata bendanya yang tidak disebutkan lagi karena sudah tersirat di dalam kata ganti ini.

Contoh:

  1. This house is mine. (rumah ini adalah rumahku).
  2. That house is his. (rumah itu adalah rumahnya).
  3. This dictionary is yours. (kamus ini adalah kamusmu).
  4. I like your shoes but I don’t like mine. (Saya suka spatumu, tapi saya tidak suka sepatuku).
  5. Those books are his now. (Buku-buku itu adalah buku-bukunya sekarang).
  6. This new bag is mine. (Tas baru ini adalah tasku).
  7. That television is ours. (TV itu adalah TV kami).
  8. These beautiful cars are theirs. (Mobil-mobil cantik ini adalah mobil-mobil mereka).
  9. That pencil is yours. (Pensil itu adalah pensilmu).
  10. This dictionary is his. (Kamus ini adalah kamusnya).

Note: In speaking, noun setelah “this, that, these dan those” sering dihilangkan. Lawan bicara sudah paham maksudnya karena noun-nya sudah diacu sebelumnya, plus adanya body language. Contoh-contoh di atas dapat dinyatakan dengan:

  1. This is mine
  2. That’s yours
  3. Those are his now, dan seterusnya.

E. Penggunaan reflexive (reciprocal) pronoun

Reflexive atau reciprocal pronoun ini digunakan untuk merefleksikan diri dan untuk mengeraskan arti orang atau benda yang diacunya.

Contoh:

  1. I hate myself. (Saya benci diriku sendiri).
  2. You only love yourself. (Kamu hanya cinta dirimu sendiri).
  3. You all have to help yourselves. (Kamu semua harus membantu diri kamu sendiri).
  4. We have to discipline ourselves. (Kita harus mendisiplinkan diri kita sendiri).
  5. She must be angry to herself. (Dia harus marah pada dirinya sendiri).
  6. He gives himself a little more time to rest. (Dia memberi dirinya sendiri sedikit lebih banyak waktu untuk beristirahat).
  7. They are proud of themselves. (Mereka bangga pada diri mereka sendiri).

Soal: Coba terjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris kalimat berikut:

  • Saya akan meminjamimu sepedaku.

Jawab:

Kata ‘meminjami’ adalah sebuah kata kerja (aktivitas yang akan dilakukan oleh subject ‘Saya’). Jadi ‘mu’ di sini bukanlah mengganti kepunyaan, melainkan kependekan dari pronoun ‘kamu’, yang berfungsi sebagai object kalimat, sehingga dalam bahasa Inggris menjadi “you”. Sedangkan pronoun ‘ku’ di kalimat ini adalah sebuah possessive adjective, yang menerangkan who (siapa) yang memiliki ‘sepeda’ tersebut. Oleh karena itu, pronoun yang tepat untuk ‘ku’ adalah ‘my’. Jadi, kalimat di atas dapat diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris menjadi:

  • I will lend you my bicycle. Atau,
  • I will lend my bike to you.

F. Penggunaan indefinite pronoun: One dan Ones

Selain kelima jenis pronoun di atas, one dan ones juga dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan nouns yang sudah pernah disebutkan sebelumnya. One digunakan untuk menggantikan singular nouns (benda tunggal), sedangkan ones digunakan untuk menggantikan plural nouns (benda jamak).

Contoh:

  1. There are two dogs in my house. They are brown and white. The brown one is big, tall and a little fierceful, while the white one is smaller, shorter, and calmer. (Ada 2 anjing di rumahku. Mereka berwarna coklat dan putih. Anjing yang berwarna coklat adalah besar, tinggi, dan sedikit galak, sedangkan anjing yang berwarna putih adalah lebih kecil, lebih pendek, dan lebih jinak).
  2. I have two new red pens on my right hand and five used blue pens on my left one. Which ones do you want? (Saya punya 2 pulpen merah baru di tangan kanan saya dan 5 pulpen biru yang telah pernah dipakai di tangan kiri saya. Pulpen-pulpen yang manakah yang kamu inginkan?).

Note:One ‘ atau ‘ones ‘ hanya menggantikan noun-nya saja, sedangkan adjective-nya harus tetap disebutkan agar pembaca atau lawan bicara mengerti apa atau siapa yang diacu/dirujuk oleh ‘one’ atau ‘ones’ tersebut.

  1. Question Tags

Question tags adalah pertanyaan singkat yang diikutkan pada akhir sebuah kalimat untuk membuat pertanyaan. Contoh:

Kalimat:- She speaks English.
Pertanyaan:- Does she speak English?
Question Tag:- She speaks English, doesn’t she?

Bentuk

Question tag dibentuk dari sebuah kata kerja bantu dan subjek. Jika kalimat positif, kita biasanya menggunakan tag negatif, contoh:

  • That‘s a great song, isn’t it?
  • She‘s a lawyer, isn’t she?

Jika kalimat negatif, kita gunakan tag positif. Contoh:

  • You‘re not busy, are you?
  • This way isn’t right, is it?

Kata kerja bantu dan subjek dalam question tag sesuai dengan yang terdapat pada kalimat utama. Hanya bentuk positif dan negatifnya yang berubah. Contoh:

  • He can play the trumpet, can’t he?
  • You haven’t finished yet, have you?

Pada kalimat diatas subjek diberi warna biru, dan kata kerja bantu warna hijau. Yang mengalami perubahan hanya bagian dari pertanyaan yang positif atau negatif.

Fungsi

Question tag memiliki dua tujuan utama: untuk menguatkan informasi yang diharapkan dan untuk menanyakan informasi yang tidak diharapkan. Kedua tujuan ini bisa dibedakan berdasarkan intonasi pengucapan yang kita gunakan – jika suara merendah berarti pertanyaan tersebut menanyakan informasi yang diharapkan – jika suara meninggi berarti benar-benar menyanakan sebuah pertanyaan. Contoh:

  • Intonasi menurun – You haven’t finished yet, have you?

Penanya mengharapkan orang yang ditanya telah selesai, penanya hanya memeriksa saja untuk memastikan.

  • Intonasi meningkat – You haven’t finished yet, have you?

Pembicara benar-benar menanyakan apakah yang ditanya sudah selesai atau tidak. Jika yagn ditanya selesai lebih cepat dari yang diharapkan si penanya, maka pembicara akan terkejut.

  • You’re really busy now, aren’t you? – Yes, I’ve got to finish this by Monday.

Orang yang ditanya pada kalimat diatas menguatkan bahwa dia sedang sibuk, kemungkinan dengan menunjukkan simpati juga.

  • Why are you watching TV? You’re really busy now, aren’t you? – Not really, I did most of it last night.

Pada kalimat ini orang yang bertanya menganggap orang yang ditanya sibuk tetapi penanya terkejut sebab orang yang ditanya seharusnya sedang bekerja bukan nonton TV, jadi penanya menanyakan tentang situasi yang tidak diharapkan.

Kalimat negatif dengan tag positif sering digunakan untuk menyatakan permintaan, contoh:

  • You don’t have a pencil, do you?
  • You couldn’t change a $5 bill, could you?

Question tag yang memerintah biasanya menggunakan will, contoh:

  • Open the door for me, will you?
  • Hang on a minute, will you?

Daftar Pustaka

http://www.1-language.com/englishcoursenew/unit32_grammar.htm

http://englishonline.blogdetik.com    

http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar

http://www.englishlanguageguide.com

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